There’s an intriguing and puzzling quote from Marx which is very informative in a completely unexpected way, when Marx says:
“Life is not determined by consciousness, but consciousness by life.”
(The German Ideology, International Publishers, 1970, page 47)
This seems to fit Marx’s obsession with practical circumstances as the “driver” and ideas and subjective states of mind as secondary or even derivative. For Marx, culture and consciousness are “epiphenomena” like the foam on a wave.
In a different way, modern philosophers have their own versions of this:
- For Wittgenstein, “forms of life” come first before all else.
- For Husserl, “the life-world” comes before theory.
- For Heidegger, “being-in-the-world” comes before theory.
Marx’s reduction of everything to material circumstances as primary causes of everything would seem to these other philosophers as a kind of extremist monomania on Marx’s part, as when he says:
We do not set out from what men say, imagine, conceive, nor from men as narrated, thought of, imagined, conceived, in order to arrive at men in the flesh. We set out from real, active men, and on the basis of their real life-process we demonstrate the development of the ideological reflexes and echoes of this life-process. Their material life-process dominates.
The phantoms formed in the human brain are also, necessarily, sublimates of their material life-process which is empirically verifiable and bound to material premises. Morality, religion, metaphysics, all the rest of ideology and their corresponding forms of consciousness, thus no longer retain the semblance of independence.Karl Marx with Friedrich Engels, The German Ideology, page 47
This idea from Marx is both suggestive and obsessive and maniacal at the same time, what the French call an “idée fixe” or fixation.
It is more accurate to say perhaps that life and consciousness are a “double helix.”